Dice Christian Salmon en el prólogo a Tumba de la ficción que habría que desarrollar una nueva forma de reivindicar la libertad: el derecho a la ficción. Lo hace aludiendo a una serie de casos que, desde el principio de los tiempos, han evidenciado la incomodidad que tanto el arte como la literatura representan para según qué regímenes o aparatos de poder[…] La lista es inmensa e incluye a todo tipo de escritores, desde Bulgákov, Goethe, Solzhenitsyn o Thomas Mann, hasta Gao Xingjian o Rushdie pasando por Huxley, Danilo Kiš, Stefan Zweig, Hemingway o Nabókov… Lo más curioso es que la lista da cuenta evidente de que no se trata de un fenómeno que ocurría en las lejanas hogueras de la inquisición, o en los autos de fe del Tercer Reich, sino que está tan presente y es tan actual, que cada generación literaria y artística va encontrando sus propias disputas contra la censura del poder. Nos gusta pensar que aprendemos de la historia pero a fin de cuentas, la historia se repiteprimero como tragedia, luego como farsa, pero casi siempre como tragedia -Marx dixit- (Pron, Patrico. El libro tachado: 2015).

Lo anterior lo traigo a colación, como puede imaginarse, debido a la última polémica suscitada al respecto de censuras y condenas públicas a un contenido cultural: el caso de la última edición de los Premios Ciutat de Barcelona, que el Ayuntamiento concede desde el año 1950. La discusión se desató luego de que el pasado 15 de febrero, el presidente del grupo municipal del Partido Popular en el Ayuntamiento de Barcelona, Alberto Fernández, abandonara la ceremonia de entrega de los premios mientras la poeta Dolors Miquel, hacía lectura de Mare Nostra, galardonado en la categoría de poesía. El edil justificaba su reacción aludiendo sentirse ofendido por el contenido del texto; para explicarse publicaba el siguiente mensaje: “He abandonado la entrega de los premios Ciudad de Barcelona que otorga el Ayuntamiento. La razón es la lectura de este, para algunos, poema, leedlo y opinad. No es un tema de creencias religiosas sino de respeto, y aquí ha faltado cuando se recitaba cual nueva versión del Padrenuestro. Con los católicos se atreven a todo, pero seguro que su libertad no la ejercen igual mofándose del Islam o los musulmanes.

                [En el vídeo: lectura de Mare Nostra por Dolors Miquel. Premios Ciudad de Barcelona]

Luego del mensaje de Fernández: la controversia. Numerosos comentarios de crispación secundado al líder municipal del PP en las redes y los medios; otras muchas opiniones que condenaban la posición de Fernández. Entre ambos alegatos: el despropósito. La disputa alcanzó tal proporción que la Asociación Española de Abogados Cristianos anunció que interpondría una denuncia ante el Fiscal contra la poeta Dolors Miquel; y que barajaba la posibilidad de denunciar también la alcaldesa de Barcelona Ada Colau. Consideraban que al permitir la lectura del poema se estaba incurriendo en responsabilidad penal. El hecho se vincula directamente con otro caso similar ocurrido el pasado 5 de febrero en Madrid. En esta ocasión el juez de la Audiencia Nacional, Ismael Moreno, a instancias de la Fiscalía del Estado, ordenó prisión provisional sin fianza para los titiriteros Raúl García y Alfonso Lázaro, de la compañía Títeres desde Abajo, acusados, entre otras cosas, de un delito de enaltecimiento del terrorismo debido al contenido de una de sus puestas en escena.

La polémica, como puede verse, no sólo pone una vez más sobre la mesa la discusión acerca de los límites de la libertad de creación, una cuestión que en España parece estar peligrosamente de actualidad, sino que nos alerta sobre cuál es el posicionamiento verdadero que las interpretaciones de la ley ofrecen a favor del resguardo no sólo de la expresión, sino de los derroteros de la producción de capital cultural. El peligro, creemos, es la llamada judicialización de la cultura, como bien lo definían Sílvia Marimon y Laura Serra en un artículo aparecido en http://ara.cat. En él las autoras acudían a una serie de voces para abordar la situación desde distintos puntos de vista y disciplinas (arte, literatura, derecho, filosofía, sociología…) y concluían, a su manera, que si bien uno no es absolutamente libre, el sentido del arte radica entre otras cosas en explorar los límites de lo prohibido e incluso de la corrección. Que si bien todo acto de comunicación está basado en el respecto, lo que tipifica el código penal e interpretan los que se consideran afectados, no parece razonable para coartar la libertad de expresión artística y sí significa, justamente, una prueba más de esa judicialización de la cultura.

Más allá de las controversias, lo que cabe quizá preguntarse aquí es ¿qué lectura estamos obligados a hacer desde nuestra actividad y sector? ¿No deberíamos como profesionales de la cultura demandar otras visiones? ¿No deberíamos insistir en que el debate y las reacciones de indignación parecen, desde un inicio, tener naturaleza política y electoralista? ¿No deberíamos insistir, repito, como hace por ejemplo Laura Borrás en el citado artículo de http://ara.cat, en que el límite lo ponen siempre artista y público y que es éste último quien acaba concediendo la capacidad de penetrar o no en lo que propone el creador? Y más allá, ¿no deberíamos analizar si el texto de Dolors Miquel es merecedor de un reconocimiento? Es decir, ¿no deberíamos preocuparnos también por la lectura cultural y literaria de ese material puesto en cuestión? ¿No deberíamos ir, como nos corresponde, a las fuentes y hacer una genealogía de lo que el texto intenta, de la cantidad de veces que el recurso de la deconstrucción de una plegaria ha sido usado y entonces tener más herramientas para enriquecer nuestra lectura de lo que Miquel propone con su  Mare Nostra? ¿No deberíamos incluso recordar todos esos otros textos silenciados en la historia de la cultura, todos esos escritores (aunque esté claro que Miquel no es Solzhenitsyn)? ¿No deberíamos, en fin, pasar de la judialización de la cultura, a una lectura cultural de esta situación, una más que necesaria culturalización?, pienso, insisto ¿No debería ser este nuestro verdadero posicionamiento?

La preguntas son muchas y la coincidencia de los hechos en Madrid y Barcelona una oportunidad para insistir en lo que Christian Salmon remarca en el libro citado al inicio de este artículo: que la censura ha ido adquiriendo formas nuevas, menos identificables y más sofisticadas, capaces de regular minuciosamente la circulación de los contenidos, que intentan normalizar el espectáculo e instalan por doquier el reino de lo homogéneo. Es decir, que la censura es hoy, también, la tiranía de lo único. Afortunadamente para nosotros, la ficción y la cultura vuelven siempre, se reinventan y reivindican su independencia sin importar el contexto e incluso el momento histórico. Habría simplemente que insistir en las preguntas y entonces resguardar un poco mejor nuestro derecho a la ficción (a los textos y los libros). Ya lo decía el erudito inglés William Blades, el primero en estudiar la historia de la destrucción de textos, cuando se daba a la tarea de enlistar las principales amenazas para los libros: el fuego, el agua, el gas y el calor; el polvo; pero también la negligencia, la ignorancia, la maldad, los insectos, los gusanos, los coleccionistas, la servidumbre, los libreros y los niños. Casi un siglo y medio después las amenazas podrían seguir siendo las mismas, en ellas caben igualmente las guerras, los totalitarismos, la impunidad y la mojigatería; a fin de cuentas, todas ellas, cohabitan entre la ignorancia, los insectos y la muy nociva servidumbre.

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